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The United States National Arboretum. Retrieved 5 February The Chile Pepper Institute. New Mexico State University. Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds. Retrieved 6 February Journal of Food Biochemistry. University of North Texas Press. Using Ethanol as Solvent". Salsa Garden Pepper Database: Puya, Capsicum annuum Hot Pepper ".

Retrieved 11 July What is the Hottest Pepper in the World? Retrieved 12 October Retrieved from " https: Chili peppers Capsicum cultivars Lists of foods Lists of cultivars. Articles containing Thai-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from August Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 23 December , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Grown in Syria and Turkey and used, in coarsely ground, dried form, as a spice that is also called aleppo pepper. A Hungarian pepper often pickled or dried and ground to make spicy paprika. A mild variety of New Mexico chile. Often it is used for chile relleno. When mature, it takes on a red color and is referred to as a colorado. Often it is pickled and used as an ingredient in sandwiches; its piquancy is not very hot.

Its shape and color resemble a banana. A Southeast Asian cultivar known by many local names, but generally it is called Thai chili in the United States. It has thin fruit with a pointed tip. Grows in a conical shape with a slight curve near the tip.

The small, round fruit are usually dried, and have a distinct, nutty flavor. The name, Spanish for "rattle" or "jingle bell", derives from the rattling noise made by the seeds inside the dried pod. This long, thin fruit was transported by the Portuguese to China and India, where it is used widely. Often it is dried and ground into powder. The first nematode-resistant bell pepper.

Named for the fruit it resembles, this cultivar's fruit is small, red, and round. It is typically used fresh, or pickled and jarred, and is often used to stuff green olives. It is also called pimento. Popular in Mexican cuisine, it is almost always encountered dried; in this state, it is referred to as a pasilla. The pasilla has a dark brown color and a smoky flavor. This small, hot fruit is often eaten by birds. The plant is thought to be the ancestor of the cultivated C.

Evidence indicates it has been consumed by humans as far back as 7, BC. Medium in thickness, the tapered fruit is green when unripe, but turns red when mature. Often it is fried in Italian cooking. This slender-fruited cultivar is grown primarily in Mexico, its name is Spanish for "from a tree".

Frequently it is used in ceviche, and is one of the most frequently used chilis in salsa. This wide, medium-hot variety is used in Hungarian cuisine, frequently pickled. Also it is commonly dried, ground, and presented as " paprika ". Very popular, especially in the United States, it is often pickled or canned. Its dried form is called guajillo , [18] [23] and is used to make a red sauce used for tamales. Grown in Mexico, the mulato is a mild to medium chili pepper, closely related to the poblano ancho , and usually sold dried.

Rare, heirloom -type hot pepper cultivated for its unique shape. Generic Italian name for hot chili peppers, specifically the cultivars of the species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens. Fresh fruits, plants and seeds are known as "Gorria", dried fruits are called "Piment d'Espelette". Grown in Espelette since ca. The large, heart-shaped, dark green fruit is extremely popular in Mexico, often to make chile relleno.

When dried, it is referred to as an ancho or mulato. One of many cultivars called Thai pepper, it has very short fruit, and is very hot. Santa Fe Grande [18]. The conical, blunt fruits ripen from greenish-yellow, to orange-yellow to red. The peppers grow upright on in plants. Santa Fe Grande has a slightly sweet taste and is fairly mild in pungency. The thin, tapered fruit turns red when mature.

Due to its thin skin, it does not need to be peeled before use. A chili pepper grown in the Philippines, and a popular ingredient in Filipino Cuisine. Medium hot pods have a unique shape which resembles the hat of a bishop. Sturdy plants, can be grown as perennials. Pods are thin walled and have a fruity taste with medium heat. It is a type of seasoning pepper. It refers to a specific variety of Capsicum chinense that is related to the habanero but with a much milder flavor.

It just takes time. We need to work through an enormous pile of documents to find decisive proof. It is about determining whether elements of the discussions constituted a secret cartel, what elements are part of a gray area and what discussions constitute legitimate collaboration among the auto companies. Did you find anything? We are currently evaluating the results. We need to be very thorough and cannot allow ourselves to be carried away by press reports. If we ultimately come to a decision about illegal collusion, it needs to be able to withstand scrutiny in court.

As such, we can't afford to pursue a single direction. We need to be open and must work professionally. At this point, I cannot say. It can take years for there to be a final decision in such cases. But I can assure you the automobile sector is a high priority for us, and that has been the case for quite some time. At this point, we know the sector pretty well. We have made eight rulings against automotive suppliers and, of course, against the truck cartel, a giant case.

It seems to me that there is nothing in this sector that is immune from the possibility of forming a cartel. There were countless working groups over so many years. When did they stand on the solid ground of permitted collaboration?

And when did they drift into possibly illegal collusion? It is a difficult question to answer. Competition law, after all, doesn't prohibit all forms of cooperation.

There are a lot of good reasons for collaboration. Your agency has recently shown it has no qualms about imposing drastic penalties. In a worst-case scenario, how high could the fines be for the carmakers? We are not that far yet. But we have clear rules for how we calculate fines. The highest possible penalty is 10 percent of global turnover, and then there are factors that either mitigate or exacerbate the penalty, like the leniency program.

When it came to the truck cartel, in which six truckmakers were found guilty of price fixing, the companies were forced to pay a total of about 3 billion euros. VW and Daimler were part of that collusion case as well. Does that play a role? The duration and intensity of a cartel can affect things, and of course the penalty can be greater for those who are loyal clients of ours, so to speak. In collusion cases, which companies are ultimately granted immunity from potential fines: The company that denounces the cartel in the first place or the company that delivers the most evidence?

They need to deliver usable information, otherwise the entire program makes no sense. But the question of who was first is very important. After that, the danger that the entire cartel will be revealed is pretty high. It sets off a kind of gold rush for immunity. You can see that reflected in the severity of the penalty. The first company to denounce a cartel can have up to percent of the fine waived.

The second can then only hope for a reduction if it produces new evidence. When it comes to the potential collusion among carmakers, how do you measure the cost to consumers? We're not talking about simple price fixing.

Consumers aren't only hurt if they pay more than they needed to. They are also hurt if possible innovations fail to materialize. In the truck cartel, the manufacturers involved also coordinated pn when they would introduce certain environmental innovations. When manufacturers of nine out of 10 heavy-duty trucks participate in this kind of cartel, the customers' options for choosing a particularly environmentally friendly truck are extremely limited.

With the auto cartel, it also wasn't just about costs. Daimler, Volkswagen, BMW, Porsche and Audi agreed to limit the size of so-called "AdBlue tanks," which contain a solution that reduces nitrous oxide emissions. Yet they knew that doing so would mean they wouldn't satisfy emission reduction requirements.

In other words, they may have colluded to commit fraud. Behind the scenes, the auto industry is trying to talk down the cartel case, along the lines of: To that I can only say, we are taking this case very seriously. One should not make wrong assumptions simply because our investigation is not so visible from the outside. We are not the police, we do not knock -- searches aside -- on the doors of houses.

The largest part of our work involves sitting in an office and combing through documents. With the truck cartel, our team looked through up to , documents -- and not just with the help of special data-analysis software, but also physically, paper by paper.

Daimler made a voluntary self-disclosure in , but almost nothing happened until Volkswagen also made a self-disclosure in It wasn't quite like that. When the diesel scandal became public, we thoroughly examined whether any aspect of it was relevant to competition law.

At that point, we concluded that it was merely fraud. That is bad enough, but not relevant for competition law. The diesel scandal initially didn't have any competition aspects. We get involved because Daimler and Volkswagen made self-disclosures. Does it make you angry how VW and other auto companies are doing very little to compensate their European customers? For me, the case certainly raises the question as to why we in Europe don't have the option of pursuing class-action suits, as is possible in the U.

I believe that the threat of these suits scares and disciplines some companies, because suddenly a lot more money is at stake. Class-action suits are also possible in some EU member states but not in all of them. We at the Commission would like to see consumers everywhere in the EU be granted better rights, and are currently looking into how best to accomplish that. You recently said that you see "no big difference between the business practices of American tech companies and those of German car makers.

The packaging - the exterior - looks different. But the motives of the companies are very similar. They are focused on getting something faster or cheaper than they are entitled to.

Capsicum annuum , native from southern North America through Central America to South America , has been cultivated worldwide for over years. The duration and intensity of a cartel can affect things, and of course the penalty can be greater for those who are loyal clients of ours, so to speak.

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