The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. Mit diesem kostenlosen Online-Übersetzer übersetzen Sie Wörter, texte, sätze und Ausdrücke auf English, Spanish, Italienisch, Französisch, Russisch, Hebraïsch.
Between and , enough additional material had been compiled to make a one-volume supplement, so the dictionary was reissued as the set of 12 volumes and a one-volume supplement in In , Oxford had finally put the dictionary to rest; all work ended, and the quotation slips went into storage. However, the English language continued to change and, by the time 20 years had passed, the dictionary was outdated. There were three possible ways to update it.
The cheapest would have been to leave the existing work alone and simply compile a new supplement of perhaps one or two volumes; but then anyone looking for a word or sense and unsure of its age would have to look in three different places. The most convenient choice for the user would have been for the entire dictionary to be re-edited and retypeset , with each change included in its proper alphabetical place; but this would have been the most expensive option, with perhaps 15 volumes required to be produced.
The OUP chose a middle approach: Robert Burchfield was hired in to edit the second supplement;  Onions turned 84 that year but was still able to make some contributions as well.
The work on the supplement was expected to take about seven years. They were published in , , , and respectively, bringing the complete dictionary to 16 volumes, or 17 counting the first supplement.
Burchfield emphasized the inclusion of modern-day language and, through the supplement, the dictionary was expanded to include a wealth of new words from the burgeoning fields of science and technology, as well as popular culture and colloquial speech. Burchfield said that he broadened the scope to include developments of the language in English-speaking regions beyond the United Kingdom , including North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Caribbean.
Burchfield also removed, for unknown reasons, many entries that had been added to the supplement. Some of these had only a single recorded usage, but many had multiple recorded citations, and it ran against what was thought to be the established OED editorial practice and a perception that he had opened up the dictionary to "World English".
By the time the new supplement was completed, it was clear that the full text of the dictionary would need to be computerized. Preparation for this process began in , and editorial work started the following year under the administrative direction of Timothy J.
Benbow, with John A. Simpson and Edmund S. See The Word Detective: Basic Books, New York. In the United States, more than typists of the International Computaprint Corporation now Reed Tech started keying in over ,, characters, their work checked by 55 proof-readers in England. Under a agreement, some of this software work was done at the University of Waterloo , Canada, at the Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary , led by Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet ; this search technology went on to become the basis for the Open Text Corporation.
Walton Litz , an English professor at Princeton University who served on the Oxford University Press advisory council, was quoted in Time as saying "I've never been associated with a project, I've never even heard of a project, that was so incredibly complicated and that met every deadline.
By , the NOED project had achieved its primary goals, and the editors, working online, had successfully combined the original text, Burchfield's supplement, and a small amount of newer material, into a single unified dictionary. The first edition retronymically became the OED1. The Oxford English Dictionary 2 was printed in 20 volumes. The 20 volumes started with A , B. The content of the OED2 is mostly just a reorganization of the earlier corpus, but the retypesetting provided an opportunity for two long-needed format changes.
The headword of each entry was no longer capitalized, allowing the user to readily see those words that actually require a capital letter. The British quiz show Countdown has awarded the leather-bound complete version to the champions of each series since its inception in When the print version of the second edition was published in , the response was enthusiastic.
Author Anthony Burgess declared it "the greatest publishing event of the century", as quoted by the Los Angeles Times. The supplements and their integration into the second edition were a great improvement to the OED as a whole, but it was recognized that most of the entries were still fundamentally unaltered from the first edition.
Much of the information in the dictionary published in was already decades out of date, though the supplements had made good progress towards incorporating new vocabulary. Yet many definitions contained disproven scientific theories, outdated historical information, and moral values that were no longer widely accepted. Accordingly, it was recognized that work on a third edition would have to begin to rectify these problems.
However, in the end only three Additions volumes were published this way, two in and one in ,    each containing about 3, new definitions.
New text search databases offered vastly more material for the editors of the dictionary to work with, and with publication on the Web as a possibility, the editors could publish revised entries much more quickly and easily than ever before. Revisions were started at the letter M , with new material appearing every three months on the OED Online website. The editors chose to start the revision project from the middle of the dictionary in order that the overall quality of entries be made more even, since the later entries in the OED1 generally tended to be better than the earlier ones.
However, in March , the editors announced that they would alternate each quarter between moving forward in the alphabet as before and updating "key English words from across the alphabet, along with the other words which make up the alphabetical cluster surrounding them". The revision is expected to roughly double the dictionary in size.
John Simpson was the first chief editor of the OED3. He retired in and was replaced by Michael Proffitt , who is the eighth chief editor of the dictionary.
The production of the new edition takes full advantage of computer technology, particularly since the June inauguration of the whimsically named "Perfect All-Singing All-Dancing Editorial and Notation Application ", or "Pasadena". With this XML -based system, the attention of lexicographers can be directed more to matters of content than to presentation issues such as the numbering of definitions.
The new system has also simplified the use of the quotations database, and enabled staff in New York to work directly on the dictionary in the same way as their Oxford-based counterparts. Other important computer uses include internet searches for evidence of current usage, and email submissions of quotations by readers and the general public.
Wordhunt was a appeal to the general public for help in providing citations for 50 selected recent words, and produced antedatings for many. The OED ' s small army of devoted readers continue to contribute quotations: OED currently contains over , entries. More than new words, senses, and subentries have been added to the OED in December , including " to drain the swamp ", " TGIF ", and " burkini ".
In , the volume OED1 was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition , by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up "4-up" format. The two volume letters were A and P ; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type.
Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs. In , the second supplement was published as a third volume to the Compact Edition. In , for the volume OED2 , the compact edition format was re-sized to one-third of original linear dimensions, a nine-up "9-up" format requiring greater magnification, but allowing publication of a single-volume dictionary. Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM.
The text of the first edition was made available in Version 1 was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 included the Oxford English Dictionary Additions of and It has been reported that this version will work on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows , using emulation programs.
The online edition is the most up-to-date version of the dictionary available. The OED web site is not optimized for mobile devices, but the developers have stated that there are plans to provide an API that would enable developers to develop different interfaces for querying the OED. Some public libraries and companies have subscribed, as well, including public libraries in the United Kingdom, where access is funded by the Arts Council ,  and public libraries in New Zealand. The OED 's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OED itself.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , originally started in and completed in ,  is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before except those used by Shakespeare , Milton , Spenser , and the King James Bible.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. Fowler to be compressed, compact, and concise. Its primary source is the Oxford English Dictionary, and it is nominally an abridgment of the Concise Oxford Dictionary. It was first published in Instead, it was an entirely new dictionary produced with the aid of corpus linguistics.
The OED lists British headword spellings e. For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize , e. However, despite, and at the same time precisely because of, its claims of authority,  the dictionary has been criticised since at least the s from various angles.
It has become a target precisely because of its scope, its claims to authority, its British-centredness and relative neglect of World Englishes,  its implied but not acknowledged focus on literary language and, above all, its influence.
The OED, as a commercial product, has always had to manoeuvre a thin line between PR, marketing and scholarship and one can argue that its biggest problem is the critical uptake of the work by the interested public. In his review of the supplement,  University of Oxford linguist Roy Harris writes that criticizing the OED is extremely difficult because "one is dealing not just with a dictionary but with a national institution", one that "has become, like the English monarchy, virtually immune from criticism in principle".
He further notes that neologisms from respected "literary" authors such as Samuel Beckett and Virginia Woolf are included, whereas usage of words in newspapers or other less "respectable" sources hold less sway, even though they may be commonly used.
He writes that the OED 's "[b]lack-and-white lexicography is also black-and-white in that it takes upon itself to pronounce authoritatively on the rights and wrongs of usage", faulting the dictionary's prescriptive rather than descriptive usage. To Harris, this prescriptive classification of certain usages as " erroneous " and the complete omission of various forms and usages cumulatively represent the "social bias[es]" of the presumably well-educated and wealthy compilers.
However, the identification of "erroneous and catachrestic" usages is being removed from third edition entries,  sometimes in favour of usage notes describing the attitudes to language which have previously led to these classifications.
Harris also faults the editors' "donnish conservatism" and their adherence to prudish Victorian morals , citing as an example the non-inclusion of "various centuries-old 'four-letter words ' " until However, no English dictionary included such words, for fear of possible prosecution under British obscenity laws, until after the conclusion of the Lady Chatterley's Lover obscenity trial in The first dictionary to include the word fuck was the Penguin English Dictionary of The OED ' s claims of authority have also been questioned by linguists such as Pius ten Hacken, who notes that the dictionary actively strives towards definitiveness and authority but can only achieve those goals in a limited sense, given the difficulties of defining the scope of what it includes.
Founding editor James Murray was also reluctant to include scientific terms, despite their documentation, unless he felt that they were widely enough used. In , he declined to add the word "radium" to the dictionary. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the multi-volume historical dictionary. For other, smaller, dictionaries published by Oxford, including the one-volume Concise Oxford English Dictionary , see Category: For other uses, see OED disambiguation. Seven of the twenty volumes of printed second edition of the Oxford English Dictionary Frederick Furnivall , — This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints.
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Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 26 May Lexicography and the OED: Pioneers in the Untrodden Forest. Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 16 May The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 August Writing and rewriting three big verbs in the OED".
Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 21 October The Professor and the Madman. Retrieved 10 March Transactions of the Philological Society. Introduction, Supplement, and Bibliography. Retrieved 7 June Caught in the Web of Words: James Murray and the Oxford English Dictionary.
Also included for reference purposes is a selection of links to major legal websites in the German vernacular. Brief source descriptions have been provided wherever the authors have had a chance to look at the materials. Currency has been a major priority, but not so recent sources have been included for reference purposes as well.
When using or referring to these materials, it needs to be borne in mind that they may be out of date, incomplete, or, in the worst of cases, incorrect. Hence, it stands to reason to check their origin and currency, or consult an expert in German law on any substantive issues involved.
Table of Contents 1. Compilations of Business and Commercial Laws 2. General Private and Commercial Law 2. Industrial and Intellectual Property Law 2. Corporate Tax Law 3. Takeover of Companies 4. Foreign Trade Law 4. Other Including Industry-Specific Laws 5.
Severus Snape and the Concept of the Outsider:
Harry Potter and the Christian Right. From Red Tape to Results: