Bestellen Sie jetzt preisgünstiges Heizöl schnell und einfach online inklusive zuverlässiger Lieferung. Um die Jahrhundertwende kamen noch viele Segelschiffe in der Petroleumfahrt gut ins Geschäft. Der einzige Siebenmastschoner der Welt, die "Thomas W. Lawson", Baujahr , wurde für Öl in bulk umgebaut.(Marke rechts).
The above are major bus lines traversing much of the country with some crossing the border into the U. No bus company holds a large market share nationwide like Greyhound in the U.
There are over other companies and drivers' unions operating buses not listed in the above which you will find once there or see or add to the specific articles of a region, city or town. On the other hand if traveling within a city, you won't find a pleasant surprise. You will find one of the most chaotic public transport systems full of the popular "peseros".
Usually the route taken is written on cardboard attached to the windshield or with wet and than dried soap or chalk on the windshield listing the local colonias neighborhoods and points of interest Wal Mart, Costco, malls, hospitals, universities, etc.
Unlike in many countries, bus stops are uncommon and you are expect to signal the bus to pick you up and drop you off wherever you want. You will rarely find a stop button in a pesero; just shout the word "baja! In the state of Jalisco there are a couple of lines which travel from the state capital city of Guadalajara to the nearby tequila distilleries in the small town of Amatitlan on the Tequila Express [dead link] and to the Jose Cuervo distilleries in the town of Tequila on the Jose Cuervo Express.
The latter two from Guadalajara are tourist trains offering tours of the tequila distilleries than as a form of transportation to get to those towns. It may be possible to hop aboard or on top of freight cars in some parts of the country if you happen to be an adventurer as many migrants traveling from Central America to the USA are doing this.
The prospect of hopping the freight is dangerous due to the lack of restraints which results in falling off, getting ran over by the wheels, getting hit by an oncoming train if fallen into the wrong spot , or being robbed by bandits along the way. That being said, there have been talks of expanding suburban rail services in several cities and high-speed passenger services, but no plans have materialized as of May One upside of the high petroleum prices is that hitching is beginning to be more common in Mexico again, particularly the rural areas.
In areas near big cities, hitching should be more difficult, and is not really advisable for security reasons. However, in village areas, this will be really possible and most likely a nice experience.
Since villagers have always had a hard time affording gas, and nowadays many are turning to picking up paying hitchhikers as a way to afford the next trip into town. Baja California, the Sierra Tarahumara and Oaxaca and Chiapas all have good possibilities for the hitchhiker. Hitchhiking possibilities vary according to region. Mexican culture is often accepting of hitchhiking and it's a common practice among Mexican youngsters going to the beach in Easter vacations, though in some cases a money contribution is expected for gas because of its relatively high prices.
You should make it clear that you have no money to offer before accepting the ride, if this is the case. If you're willing to pay, trucks will often provide lifts for about half the price of a bus ticket. Of course you may be able to negotiate a better deal. Spanish is the de facto national language. Spanish is used by virtually the whole population and all public communications signs, documents, media, etc. Mexico has one of the richest diversity of more than 60 indigenous languages spoken with official recognition.
These languages are spoken within the communities that are largely segregated from mainstream mestizo society.
Most of these communities are fluent in Spanish as well. English is understood by many in Mexico City as well as by some tourist workers in popular tourist places, but nevertheless, many Mexicans do not speak English.
German, French, and Russian may be known by some in the tourism industry, but among clerks, policemen, and drivers most particularly the last there is basically no such thing as knowledge of foreign languages.
Bilingual signs in Spanish and English might be available in popular tourist destinations. Most of them are in the cultural category and relate to either the pre-Columbian civilizations in the area or to early cities established by the Spanish conquistadores and missionaries. Much of Mexico is mountainous with some mountains rising higher than 5, m over the sea level. Mexico is on the border of two bioregions; both North American wildlife and Central and South American wildlife can be seen in the country.
Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE. It is divided into centavos. Coins are issued in 5, 10 steel , 20, 50 centavo brass; new centavo coins issued from on are steel and smaller in size and 1, 2, 5 steel ring, brass center , 10, 20, 50, and peso brass ring, steel or silver center denominations, but it's extremely rare to find coins valued at more than 10 pesos.
Banknotes are produced in 20 pesos blue , 50 pink-red , red , green , brown , and 1, purple and pink for the latest issue, purple for older issues denominations. The current issue of 20, 50 and peso bills are made from polymer plastic, and there are several different series of all banknotes. Ten-peso notes exist, but are very rare and no longer issued and accepted. Merchants may accept US dollars at a lower exchange rate. US dollars are widely accepted in the far north and in tourist locales elsewhere.
Other currencies such as the euro, pound sterling, and Swiss franc are generally not accepted by merchants, and even banks headquartered in Europe may refuse to accept euros for exchange.
On the other hand, most banks and exchange offices casas de cambio will widely accept them. If you arrive from the south and still carry Central American currency around try to exchange them as soon as possible, as outside of the immediate border area not even banks will accept them. As all Central American countries either have the US dollar as their national currency El Salvador, Panama or have it circulating to varying degrees as a de facto second currency and virtually all banks in Central America and most banks in Mexico accept US dollars usually at better rates than any other currency your best bet is to "triangulate" your money from local currency to dollars and from dollars to pesos rather than exchanging them directly, which can be difficult and expensive.
Should you have forgotten to exchange your money and the banks are closed, street money changers called coyotes or cambistas don't have fixed opening hours and often have better rates. Be careful however, as they do from time to time rip off foreigners with bogus calculators, wrong rates and counterfeit or outdated and thus worthless bills.
If you have brought cash in US dollars or euros, the best places to change your money are at an arrival airport such as MEX and CUN , where many money exchanges are located already in the arrival hall where you can also compare some exchange rates and choose the most convenient and, normally, at airports, the exchange rate is usually fair.
Be sure to pass through Customs before looking for foreign exchange as inside the customs zone in Cancun the rate is far lower than what the greediest street vendors ask for. If you would like to wait until later to obtain Mexican currency, try not to change at your hotel, as the rates there tend to be extremely disadvantageous for tourists.
However, some hotels provide exchanges as a courtesy, in this case it is best to ask just to make sure. Often, you can find money exchanges at strategic places in most touristic destinations and near the hotel zones.
The exchanges rates should not differ drastically from the ones at airport. If you are unfamiliar with Mexican money bills, coins , try to stick to official foreign exchange booths. In several internationally popular beach destinations like Cancun and Los Cabos, local merchants are accustomed to U. You can use them at ATMs as well as in most department stores, bigger restaurants, gas stations, but be sure that outside cities you always carry sufficient cash in pesos in your pocket, and generally verify the possibility to pay with card before consumption.
Smaller often family run businesses often accept only cash. Also, you cannot get lower prices if you haggle unless you pay cash. Often, you can pay half or less by acting like you are leaving. While many Pemex stations accept credit cards, especially in locations that have heavy tourist traffic, some do not; travellers who intend to pay by credit card should always ask the attendant if the card is accepted before pumping begins.
ATMs are easy to come by. Other banks may have similar policies, check with your respective institution. Ask to your bank if they have relation with Mexican banks, and the advantages that such ally can provide. Otherwise, do not be surprised to find yourself with a fee for each withdrawal.
ATMs in smaller towns can run out of currency; sometimes this is a regular occurrence. Check with the bank or locals about the best time to use the ATM and never wait until the last minute to get cash. Tipping in Mexico is similar to the United States. This tip is usually left by most people in restaurants, although it is not so common in street restaurants or stands, where the tenders usually have a can or box where people deposit coins.
It is generally common to leave a tip on the table after paying and therefore having small change is very useful. In large groups, or in nightclubs the barmen expect the customers to deposit their tip in a cup left on the table before serving the drinks so the service they give is in function with the tip they received.
It is also customary to give a tip to the person who sometimes guard the car as if they were valet parking; in Mexico these people are often called "viene viene" literally: In medium and large retail stores such as Wal-Mart there are uniformed helpers, usually children or the elderly, who bag the products just after the clerk has scanned them.
This role is called cerillo Spanish for "match". It is common for these helpers to not have a basic salary, so all the money earned is from the tips people give them.
Tipping is not expected in cabs or buses, except when it is a tour. In some populated Mexican restaurants wandering musicians enter, play, and expect the customers to pay something, although this is voluntary.
In stadiums people give a small tip to the person who shows the place where they should sit. Tips are also given to bellboys, barbers and people that work in similar services.
Merchants can be picky about the state of your paper money and may scrutinize it and reject anything with rips. Try to keep it in as pristine condition as possible.
Reputedly, this is more the case the farther south you go. In any case, you can easily enter a bank with some damaged bill to get it exchanged into another one. Merchants are often reluctant to make change in smaller towns. Try to avoid paying with overly large denominations; the best customer has exact change. In rural areas, your 'change' may consist of chiclets or other small commodities.
Merchants, specially those in small markets "tianguis" and street vendors are no strangers to haggling. The warm Mexican climate, spectacular nature and long coastline make the country great for outdoor life , especially water sport.
Football soccer is Mexico's national sport, and its top men's league, the Liga MX , is one of the best funded outside Europe. The Mexican national team is also a regional powerhouse, and matches against its northern neighbour, the United States , are particularly charged affairs. Baseball is perhaps the second biggest team sport in the country but it is very much a regional affair.
The best players make it to Major League Baseball, but the national league isn't half bad either. American Football has a long tradition in Mexico but has often been relegated to third fiddle by the more popular soccer and baseball.
Estadio Azteca has seen a handful of NFL games including, at a time, the best attended NFL game in league history up to that point and besides a long-standing college league, there is now also a professional league with teams focused in and around Mexico City. Mexican cuisine can be described better as a collection of various regional cuisines rather than a standard list of dishes for the whole country.
Because of climate, geography and ethnic differences, we can classify Mexican cuisine broadly in 4 great categories according to the region:. Ask for the "platillo tipico" of the town, which is the local speciality that may not be found elsewhere, a variation, or the birthplace of a recipe, also consider that most of the recipes change from place to place, like tamales, in the south are made with the banana plant leaves, and in the Huasteca region tamales are very big There are called "Zacahuil" , one is OK for a complete family.
If you are travelling here from Spain or elsewhere in Latin America , keep in mind that many Mexican dishes can have the same name, but be very different from their counterparts elsewhere. For instance, a Mexican tamal is very different from a Colombian tamal , and a Mexican tortilla bears virtually no similarity at all to a Spanish tortilla.
Traditional Mexican food can often be very spicy; if you are not used to peppers, always ask if your food includes it. There are many food carts on the streets of Mexican cities and towns.
Travelers are advised to eat from these carts with caution, as hygienic preparation practices are not always reliable. In doing so, you may or may not find some of the most unique and genuinely Mexican dishes you've ever had. From these vendors, you may find tacos, burgers, bread, roasted field corn or elote served with mayonnaise, or a light cream, and sprinkled with fresh white cheese, roasted sweet potato called camote, and almost any kind of food and service you would imagine.
You can measure the quality of food by popularity; do not eat in lonely places, even if they are restaurants or hotels. Consider that Mexicans eat their main meal in the middle of the afternoon around 3 o'clock , with breakfast or "almuerzo", a mid-morning affair after a very light something, like a small plate of fruit or a roll with coffee, in the very early morning. Although, many Mexicans have large breakfasts in the morning.
Later, at night the meal varies from very light, such as commonly sweet rolls or breads, coffee or hot chocolate, to heavy dinner, such as pozole, tacos, and tamales. Schedule your meals accordingly and you will get a better perspective on the gauge of how busy popular a restaurant is. Tap water is potable, but generally not recommended for drinking. Some exaggerated people even claim that tap water is not good for brushing teeth. Hotels usually give guests one large bottle of drinking water per room per night.
Bottled water is also readily available in supermarkets and at tourist attractions. There are also several Mexican beers, most of which are available outside Mexico, these include Corona popular, but not necessarily as overwhelmingly popular in Mexico as many foreigners think , Dos Equis XX and Modelo Especial. Lighter Mexican beers are often served with lime and salt, though many Mexicans do not drink beer in this fashion.
In some places you will find beer served as a prepared drink called "Michelada" or simply "Chelada". The formula varies depending on the place, but it's usually beer mixed with lime juice and various sauces and spices on ice served in a salt rim glass. Other variation called "Cubana" includes Clamato cocktail, soybean sauce, salt and a little bit of hot sauce. Northwestern Mexico, including Baja California and Sonora, also produces wines, and Mexican wine is often quite good, but most Mexicans tend to prefer European or Chilean imports.
The legal drinking age in Mexico is 18, but not strictly enforced. In many places, consumption of alcohol in public "open container" is illegal and usually punishable by a day in jail. Be aware of waitresses and barmen, especially at night clubs. If you are not aware of your consumption and how much you already spent, they can add a few more drinks to your account. Some do this, not all. Alcoholmeters are widely used in driving roads If drinking, always have a designated driver. Driving under the influence of an alcoholic beverage will result in 1 to 3 days in jail.
Mexico, especially the southern state of Chiapas, produces excellent coffee. Murals in the main campus were painted by some of the most recognized artists in Mexican history, such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros.
Most of the government-funded universities on mayor cities state capital have short courses on history, gastronomy and cultural subjects, most of them are almost free. Other places are the "Casa de la Cultura", house of culture that are historical buildings used for cultural related activities music concerts, theater, paint and other exhibits, they also have "talleres" workshops. Most places have programs for foreigners to learn Spanish, or even study a whole degree. There are some other courses where you can learn traditional Mexican activities such as handcrafts.
There are Spanish language schools throughout Mexico. The city with the most schools is Cuernavaca, with more than 50 schools. Oaxaca, San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato also offer a number of schools to choose from. Prices vary; however, most schools are very reasonably priced.
Many schools can arrange homestays with local Mexican families. Working may require a work visa, which is difficult to get if you just want to freelance for a short time. Many important headquarters are located throughout the main cities of Mexico.
Top Mexican corporations such as Televisa, Bimbo, Cemex, Telmex and Vitra are often willing to hire professionals who are native English speakers as much of their business is developed alongside North American corporations.
Native English speakers can pick up work as English teachers. The upside is that English speakers with no knowledge of Spanish are appreciated, because they will force their students to practice English. The downside is that salaries are somewhat low. Rates have risen considerably, though most are still reasonable compared to similar U. Chain accommodations are usually clean and comfortable, good for business travelers, but not necessarily for those wanting to experience Mexico itself.
Smaller hotels and motels along the roadside may not be safe or comfortable. Boutique hotels are found all over the country; price range varies but all of them are rich in Mexican traditions, elegance and charm, the perfect way to experience the cultural heritage of each state.
A great source of information is Melba Levick's book Mexicasa, found in many libraries and online bookstores. There are also many all-inclusive resorts for those visiting the major beach destinations. There is a large backpacker culture in Mexico, and there are many hostels offering dorm accommodation and private rooms. Hostels are a fantastic place to share information with fellow travelers, and you can often find people who have been to your future destinations.
There are a number of internet sites that allow you to book hostels in advance for a small fee, and this is becoming an increasingly common practice. The most authentic accommodation can usually be found by asking locals or gringos, especially in the smaller towns. If you are unsure about the safety or conditions of the room ask to see it before paying. This will not be considered rude. If you are going to be in cooler areas in the winter consider bringing an electric blanket, a sleeping bag or extra clothes, as there is power, but no heat in the cheaper hotels.
And although it may get quite hot by afternoon outside, adobe and cement are like fridges. An electric tea kettle is also a good idea, as hot water might not be available when you want it. If you're travelling with children, use a plastic case with wheels and a handle as luggage, and it can be used as a bathtub for the kids if necessary. Budget hotels rarely, if ever, have bathtubs. In most of the cities, location is very important as security changes from place to place.
Stay in populated areas, avoid poor neighborhoods, especially at night, and don't walk there at any time if you are alone. Vicious beatings have been reported at resorts by people who have travelled alone, so stay alert for any suspicious-looking individual. If you wish to visit one of the slums, you should only go as part of a guided tour with a reputable guide or tour company.
Violence related to drug cartels is an issue; see drug traffic issues below. Political violence in Chiapas and Oaxaca has abated, and is far less of a threat than drug-related crime.
Do not wave cash or credit cards around. Der Seeweg vom Persischen Golf nach Europa wird um sm länger. Bei den ersten dieser Riesenschiffe treten Risse und Verbiegungen am Schiffsrumpf auf. Die rumänische "Independenta", gebaut, Lm, Bm, T,4m, Jom Kippur Krieg, Suez wieder gesperrt. Tung, ist mit Sie macht nur zwei Reisen, wird dann aufgelegt und dient später als Lagerschiff. Länge m, Breite 58,8m, Tiefgang 29,8m, Das Schiff hat heute den Namen "Jahre Viking".
Die Ölpreise ziehen wieder an. Insgesamt wurden 6 Tanker mit mehr als Wie man auf den Marken sieht hatte man beim Laden kaum Probleme. In Europa wurde deshalb oft die britische Lyme Bay angelaufen und dort wurden die Tanker geleichtert. Ein Markt für 'shuttle-tanker' entstand. Die Station liegt vor Tunesien beim Tazerka Ölfeld. Das Rohöl wird von den Lagerstätten in den Tanker gepumpt, dort vorbehandelt, gelagert und dann an seegehende Tanker abgegeben. Die schlimmsten Tankerunfälle ,bei vielen ist der Grund 'menschliches Versagen': Es sind die "Maria Alejandra", die "Albahaa" und die "Mycene".
Auf der "Chark 5" erfolgt eine Explosion bei den Kanarischen Inseln, Das Öl sprudelt aus Bohrloch und Leitungen. Es dauerte rund drei Monate bis BP das Bohrloch verschliessen konnte. Er schreibt in abgestufter Form die Einführung von Tankern mit doppelter Hülle vor.
Und zwar nicht nur einen Doppelboden sondern auch an den Rumpfseiten. Ferner wurde die Haftung festgelegt, "der Verursacher hat zu zahlen". Da die Übergangsfristen von OPA aber bis laufen und diese Schiffe teurer sind erfolgt die Umstellung nur sehr langsam.
Auf der Marke ist der Tanker "Genmar Spyridon" abgebildet. It is in this dynamic and often unstable physical environment that the Mexican people have built their country.
Mexico can be divided into nine major physiographic regions: The Baja California peninsula in northwestern Mexico is an isolated strip of extremely arid land extending between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California Sea of Cortez. Unevenly divided between the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur , the peninsula is nearly miles 1, km long but seldom more than miles km wide.
The gently sloping western side of these mountain ranges is in contrast to the steep eastern escarpment, which makes access from the Gulf of California extremely difficult. The Sonoran Desert extends onto the peninsula along the northern end of the gulf. The Pacific Coastal Lowlands begin near Mexicali and the Colorado River delta in the north and terminate near Tepic , some miles 1, km to the south. For most of that distance, they face the Gulf of California while traversing the states of Sonora , Sinaloa , and Nayarit.
Bounded on the east by the steep-sided Sierra Madre Occidental, the lowlands are a series of coastal terraces, mesas, and small basins interspersed with riverine deltas and restricted coastal strips. Although the vast Sonoran Desert dominates their northern section, parts of the lowlands have been irrigated and transformed into highly productive farmland. The largest and most densely populated region is the inland Mexican Plateau , which is flanked by the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental.
The Mesa del Norte begins near the U. From there the Mesa Central stretches to a point just south of Mexico City. The plateau tilts gently upward from the north toward the south; at its northern end, the Mesa del Norte is about 4, feet 1, metres above sea level.
Throughout the region, relatively flat intermontane basins and bolsones ephemeral interior drainage basins are interrupted by mountainous outcrops. In the north the Chihuahuan Desert covers a section of the plateau that is more extensive than the U. Its southern end rises 7,—9, feet 2,—2, metres in the vicinity of Mexico City. The Mesa Central, moister and generally flatter than the Mesa del Norte, is divided into a series of fairly level intermontane basins separated by eroded volcanic peaks.
The largest valleys rarely exceed square miles square km in area, and many others are quite small. Many of the basins were once sites of major lakes that were drained to facilitate European and mestizo settlement.
Around Mexico City the weak, structurally unstable soils that remain have caused the colonial-era Metropolitan Cathedral and other buildings to shift on their foundations and, over many years, to list or sink unevenly into the ground.
The largely volcanic Sierra Madre Occidental , which forms the western border of the Mexican Plateau, has an average elevation of 8,—9, feet 2,—2, metres and extends roughly miles 1, km from north to south.
It has been highly incised by westward-flowing streams that have formed a series of gorges, or barrancas , the most spectacular of which is the complex known as Copper Canyon Barranca del Cobre in southwestern Chihuahua state. The Sierra Madre Oriental , a range of folded mountains formed of shales and limestones, is situated on the eastern side of the Mexican Plateau.
Its average elevations are similar to those of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but some peaks rise above 12, feet 3, metres. The mountains have major deposits of copper, lead, and zinc. The region is rich in silver, lead, zinc, copper, and tin deposits. The depression is formed of small, irregular basins interrupted by hilly outcrops, which give the area a distinctive physical landscape.
The triangular northern portion of the plain, which is characterized by lagoons and low-lying swampy areas, reaches a width of more than miles km near the U. North of the port of Tampico , an outlier of the Sierra Madre Oriental reaches the sea and interrupts the continuity of the Gulf Coastal Plain.
South from there the plain is narrow and irregular, widening at the northern end of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. On their southwestern side, approximately from Puerto Vallarta to the Gulf of Tehuantepec , are a series of relatively low ranges known collectively as the Sierra Madre del Sur. The crystalline mountains, which achieve elevations of 7,—8, feet 2,—2, metres , often reach the sea to create a rugged coastal margin, part of which is known as the Mexican Riviera.
Several coastal sites, such as Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Acapulco , and Puerto Escondido, have become alluring tourist destinations. However, the less-hospitable inland basins provide a difficult environment for traditional peasant farmers. Farther northeast is the Mesa del Sur, with numerous stream-eroded ridges and small isolated valleys some 4,—5, feet 1,—1, metres above sea level.
The picturesque Oaxaca Valley is the largest and most densely settled of these, with a predominantly indigenous population. It is one of the poorest areas of Mexico.
Bisecting the Southern Highlands is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec , a low-lying, narrow constriction of land that reaches an elevation of less than feet metres. Its hilly central area descends to narrow coastal plains on the south and to the Tabasco Plain on the north. The Chiapas Highlands are an extension of the mountain ranges of Central America. Within the highlands the low, crystalline Sierra de Soconusco range lies along the Pacific coast. To the northwest and paralleling the coast is the Grijalva River valley.
A group of highly dissected, folded, and faulted mountains is located between the valley and the Tabasco Plain, a southeastern extension of the Gulf Coastal Plain.
Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Past epochs never vanish completely, and blood still drips from all their wounds, even the most ancient.
Archived from the original on July 19,